Khumbu LAPA Complete Reference Document

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(To download the DRAFT Complete LAPA, click the link at the bottom of this page, or here.)

(To view  and download the 26-page Long Summary of the Khumbu LAPA, click here.)

Executive Summary of DRAFT Complete LAPA:

The Government of Nepal initiated climate adaptation planning and implementation with the National Adaptation Programme of Action of 2010. Recognizing the enormous variability within Nepal and within its various communities, Nepal was the first country in the world to pilot a formal Local Adaptation Plan of Action (LAPA) process that recognized this social and environmental complexity, as well as the wide range of climate change impacts that the country experiences.

The standard GON LAPA framework was designed to consist of seven steps for integrating climate change resilience into local-to-national planning processes. These steps include:

  1. Sensitization/climate change awareness building
  2. Climate vulnerability and adaptation assessment
  3. Prioritization of adaptation options
  4. Developing local adaptation plan for action
  5. Integrating the local adaptation plan for action into planning processes
  6. Implementing the local adaptation plan for action
  7. Assessing progress of local adaptation plan for action 

The following Khumbu LAPA was developed by The Mountain Institute’s (TMI) Nepal Programs, supported by and in partnership with TMI’s High Mountains Adaptation Partnership (HiMAP) program.  As per the standard GON framework it is based on the seven steps mentioned previously. However, one significant difference is that a focus on development and development needs was incorporated into step 1, Sensitization, so that the final LAPA would in theory address both climate change as well as developmental priorities and action projects.  Secondly, following the development of the LAPA (step 4), considerable effort was placed in its mainstreaming into existing or forthcoming sources of development funding, such as those from VDCs or the Sagarmatha National Park Buffer Zone Council.  Efforts to include aspects of the LAPA into the revised Sagarmatha National Park Management Plan were also pursued, particularly given the fact that the existing plan contained no reference to climate change.    

The following LAPA contains descriptions of the key methods, processes, findings, results, and materials used in a series of community consultations and District-level meetings held between September 2012 and December 2013.  It is meant to serve as a supplementary resource document to the much more condensed Khumbu summary LAPA.

Participants included representatives from local communities, the Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Sagarmatha National Park, SNP Buffer Zone Council, women’s groups, eco-club members, teachers, Dalit (traditionally untouchable ethnic groups), NGOs, former Village Development Committees (VDC) officials, political party representatives, security forces, and porters. 

Eleven (11) different LAPA tools were used throughout the course of the LAPA program that included timeline analyses, social and physical hazard mapping, climate change impact ranking, stakeholder impacts analyses, and adaptation project prioritization.

Six (6) priority climate-induced hazards were identified and ranked in order of importance as (1) glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), (2) landslides, (3) heavy snowfall, (4) windstorms, (5) forest fires, and (6) floods. Participants determined that a total of 1,284 households would likely to be affected by GLOFs and 927 households by landslides. The impacts of heavy snowfall are more severe in Khumjung and Namche VDCs than in Chaurikharka VDC, whereas windstorm impacts are growing in all three VDCs. Chaurikharka is more sensitive to forest fires than the other two VDCs.

Porters and forests were ranked as the most vulnerable sectors, followed by biodiversity and agriculture. Other vulnerable sectors included the National Park, trekking hotels and lodges, mountaineering, hydropower, livestock, and water resources.

A five-year implementation plan was developed, and prospective donors for each activity were identified. The Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Buffer Zone Council, and VDCs were identified as the most promising organizations for mainstreaming priority LAPA adaptation initiatives into existing and future developmental budgets. A series of meetings with each of these and other organizations commenced in January 2014.

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